Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes severe mood swings that include emotional heights (mild mania) and depression.

When depressed, a person may feel sad or despairing and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When the mood turns into a mania or a mild mania (less extreme than mania), it may feel rejoicing, full of energy or irritable. These mood swings can affect sleep, energy, activity, judgment, behavior and the ability to think clearly.

Mood swings may occur rarely or several times a year. While most people will experience some emotional symptoms between episodes, some may not suffer.

Although bipolar , is a lifelong condition, the patient can control mood swings and other symptoms by following treatment plans. In most cases, bipolar , is treated with medication and psychological counseling (psychotherapy).

For some people, bipolar disorder, can cause bouts of depression. People can manage bipolar depression using medications and other treatments.

Simply bipolar disorder, is a mental condition that involves changes in mood, energy levels and activity levels.

Depending on the type of polarity a person suffers from, he or she may suffer from bouts of depression that interfere with completing daily tasks.

These symptoms of depression are similar to those of other mood disorders associated with depression, such as severe depression. However, people with bipolar disorder may also have manic or mild mania.

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition, but people can control symptoms of depression and mania and prevent complications.



Symptoms of bipolar disorder vary depending on type. In these types, people may experience recurrence and severity of various manic and depression episodes.

Bipolar disorder is characterized by manic episodes that last for at least 7 days or less. if the symptoms are so severe that a person needs to be hospitalized. People may also experience two-week depressive episodes, although people with bipolar may never have a major depressive episode. People with this disorder tend to have mania episodes preceded or followed by a major depressive episode. During bouts of depression, symptoms can include:

  • Bad mood.
  • Feelings of despair and helplessness.
  • Irritability
  • Power shortage
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Loss of interest in everyday life
  • Illusions
  • Lack of appetite
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Suicidal thoughts


During manic episodes, symptoms can include:

  • emotional heights, or a great sense of happiness
  • Hyperactivity
  • Fast talking
  • Feelings of self-importance
  • Engaging in spontaneous and risky behaviors
  • Irritability
  • Illusions
  • Difficulty sleeping

The frequency of these loops varies. Someone may experience rapid cycle attacks or long periods of depression or mania. People can also experience symptoms of depression during a manic episode, which mental health professionals may call mixed symptoms.

In the long run, people with this disorder can suffer from serious physical health problems, including:

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Heart and vascular disorders
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Apoplexy

These complications can become severe. In fact, one study suggests that the life expectancy of people with bipolar disorder is about 12-13 years lower than for people with bipolar disorder.

However, effective treatment will reduce a person’s risk of health complications related to bipolar disorder.

Other symptoms of bipolar disorder

Signs and symptoms of bipolar type II and bipolar disorder may include other features, such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, etc. Bipolar symptoms may occur during pregnancy or change with the seasons.


Symptoms in children and adolescents

Symptoms of bipolar disorder may be difficult to recognize in children and adolescents. It is often difficult to tell whether these are normal ups and downs, stress or trauma outcomes, or signs of a mental health problem other than bipolar disorder.

Children and adolescents may have major depressive episodes, mania or mild mania, but the pattern can differ from adults with bipolar disorder. The mood can change rapidly during seizures. Some children may have periods without mood symptoms between seizures.

The most prominent signs of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents may include severe mood swings that differ from their usual mood swings.



The personal physician may refer them to a mental health specialist, who can then evaluate a person for bipolar disorder.

A mental health professional will ask questions about a person’s symptoms as well as broader questions about life events and general well-being.

They will ask about the family history, focusing on whether other family members have a history of mental health conditions.

Diagnosing bipolar disorder can be difficult for several reasons. Its symptoms interfere with those of other conditions, such as depression or psychosis. In addition, some people may experience a major depressive episode, without symptoms of mania or mild mania.

Otherwise, people with bipolar disorder may also have other mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorders, which can make the diagnosis more complicated.


Treatment Methods

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition. Treatments aim to stabilize a person’s mood and help him control other symptoms. In some cases, a person’s mood changes can be severe. Mental health professionals adapt treatments to the individual in order to help reduce their impact on daily life and mental well-being. Treatment for bipolar disorder usually involves a combination of medications and treatments.



There are many different types of medications and drugs for people who suffer from bipolar disorder. The type of treatment will depend on the type and severity of the symptoms. Some of the most common medications for the treatment of bipolar disorder are:

  • Mood stabilizers, such as lithium
  • Antipsychotics, such as olanzapine
  • Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine

These medications can have side effects, and some of them can be dangerous. For example, the use of antipsychotic drugs for a long time can cause weight gain, changes in cholesterol levels, and heart problems.



Mental health professionals often recommend psychotherapy along with medications to treat bipolar disorder. Psychotherapy is also known as speech therapy.

Psychotherapy has a range of benefits in addition to treating symptoms, such as support and education on coexistence with bipolar disorder. Types of psychotherapy include:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Family-focused treatment
  • Treatment among people
  • Psychological education
  • Other treatments

Drug combinations and treatment are effective for many people. If a person finds that their medications do not have the desired effect, a mental health professional may recommend alternative options. For example, electroshock therapy (ECT) uses electrical impulses to induce a seizure, which has an effect on symptoms across the tracks so far unknown. Electroshock therapy can be effective for people with severe and treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) says modern electroshock therapy methods are promising for the treatment of mental health conditions. However, electroshock therapy methods may cause the following side effects:

  • Headaches
  • Stomach pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Memory problems

Research is under way to develop new treatments related to brain stimulation, lifestyle modification, and new drugs as treatments for bipolar disorder which can also lead to a range of physical health complications over time, such as heart and vascular diseases. Healthcare professionals will determine the best course of action to prevent or treat these complications on a case-by-case basis.


When to visit a doctor

Mental health problems affect everyone differently. If a person suspects that a loved one may or have bipolar disorder, they can talk to a health care professional for more information.

It is worth visiting doctor for any ongoing symptoms related to mood, anxiety, or any other symptoms of a mental health condition.

Mental health conditions are less pronounced than some physical health disorders, but it is important to take care of mental health.

Talk to your doctor if current bipolar therapy causes side effects. NIMH advises that people avoid taking medications suddenly, as this can exacerbate symptoms and cause withdrawal effects.



The causes of bipolar disorder are currently unclear. However, the cause is likely to be a combination of biological and environmental factors that lead to the development of bipolar disorder. Risk factors for bipolar disorder include:

  • Family history of mental illness
  • Genetics
  • Brain structure and function



If not treated for bipolar disorder, it can lead to serious problems affecting every side of the patient’s life, such as:

Problems related to drug and alcohol abuse

Suicide attempts

Legal or financial problems

Damaged relationships

Poor performance at work or school

Accompanying circumstances

If you have bipolar disorder, then you may also have another health condition that needs to be treated alongside bipolar disorder. Thus some conditions can exacerbate symptoms of bipolar disorder or make treatment less successful. Examples include:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Eating disorders
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Alcohol or drug problems
  • Physical health problems, such as heart disease, thyroid problems, headaches or obesity



There is no proven way to prevent this disorder. However, getting treatment as soon as possible for mental health disorder can help prevent bipolar disorder, or other mental health conditions from deteriorating.

If you are diagnosed with bipolar, some strategies can help prevent minor symptoms from becoming full episodes of mania or depression:

Watch out for warning signs. Treatment of symptoms early can prevent the exacerbation of seizures. You may have identified a pattern of your bipolar seizures and what triggers them. Contact your doctor if you feel you are in a bout of depression or mania. Involve family members or friends in monitoring warning signs.

Avoid drugs and alcohol. Alcohol or drugs can exacerbate symptoms and increase the likelihood of their return.

Take medications as directed. You may be tempted to stop treatment – but don’t. Stopping the drug or reducing the dose yourself may lead to withdrawal effects, symptoms may worsen or return.


Major bout of depression

A major depressive episode which involves symptoms severe enough to cause noticeable difficulty in daily activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships. So The episode includes five or more of these symptoms:

Depressed mood: such as feeling sad, emptiness, despair or crying (in children and adolescents, depressed mood can appear as irritation)

  • Loss of noticeable attention or lack of pleasure in almost all or all activities
  • Significant weight loss when not dieting, weight gain, decreased appetite (in children, failure to gain weight as expected can be a sign of depression)
  • Either insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Restlessness or slowing behavior
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Feeling worthless or overly guilty
  • Low ability to think, focus or not hesitating
  • Thinking about, planning or attempting suicide