cancer surgical treatment
There are many types of cancer treatment and the types of treatment that the patient receives depend on the type of cancer and the extent of his progress. Some people with cancer will only undergo one treatment. But most people have a range of treatments, such as chemotherapy, surgery, and/or radiation therapy. When an individual needs cancer treatment, he has a lot to learn and think about and it’s normal to feel confused. But talking to your doctor and identifying the types of treatment that may be available to them can help you feel more controlled and comfortable.
When used to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which the surgeon removes cancer from the body. In this article, we will talk about the different ways in which surgery is used against cancer and what to expect before, during, and after surgery.
How the surgery is done
Surgeons often use small, thin sharp instruments, called scalpels, and other sharp instruments to cut off the body during surgery. Surgery often requires cutting the skin, muscles, and sometimes bones. After surgery, these wounds can be painful and take some time to recover from.
Anesthesia prevents pain during surgery. Anesthesia refers to medications or other substances that cause loss of feeling or consciousness. There are three types of anesthesia:
- Local anesthesia causes loss of sensation in a small area of the body.
- Regional anesthesia causes loss of sensation in a part of the body, such as the arm or leg.
- General anesthesia causes loss of sensation and complete loss of consciousness, which appears to be a very deep sleep.
There are other ways to perform surgery that do not involve cutting with a scalpel. Some of these include:
Cryotherapy is a type of treatment in which extreme cold liquid nitrogen or argon gas is used to destroy abnormal tissues, and can be used to treat skin cancer at an early stage, retinal tumor, and cancerous growth on the skin and cervix surgery is also called cryotherapy.
This type of treatment is used in which strong light rays are used to cut off tissues. The laser can focus very carefully on small areas so that it can be used in microsurgical procedures. Lasers can also be used to shrink or destroy tumors or growth that can turn into cancer.
Lasers are often used to treat tumors on the surface of the body or on the inner lining of the internal organs. Examples include basal cell carcinoma, cervical changes that can turn into cancer, cervical cancer, vagina, esophagus, and non-small cell lung cancer.
Hyperthermia is a type of treatment in which small areas of body tissues are exposed to high temperatures. High heat can damage and kill cancer cells or make them more sensitive to radiation and some chemotherapy medications. Radiofrequency excision is a type of hyperthermia that uses high-energy radio waves to generate heat. Hyperthermia is not widely available and is studied in clinical trials.
Phototherapy is a type of treatment that uses medications that interact with a particular type of light. When the tumor is exposed to this light, these drugs become active and kill nearby cancer cells. Dynamic phototherapy is often used to treat or alleviate symptoms caused by skin cancer, fungal cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer.
Types of surgery
There are many types of surgery. Types vary depending on the purpose of the surgery, the part of the body that requires surgery, the amount of tissue to be removed, and in some cases what the patient prefers.
In open surgery, the surgeon makes large cuts to remove the tumor, some healthy tissue, and possibly some nearby lymph nodes.
In minimally invasive surgery, the surgeon performs a few small wounds instead of a large one. It inserts a long, thin tube with a small camera into one of the small wounds. This tube is called a laparoscope. The camera shows images from inside the body on a screen that allows the surgeon to see what he is doing. The surgeon uses special surgical tools inserted through other small wounds to remove the tumor and some healthy tissue surrounding the tumor.
Because minimally invasive surgery requires smaller pieces, it takes less time to recover from open surgery.
Who should have surgery?
Many people with cancer are treated with surgery. Surgery works best with solid tumors in one area. It is a local treatment, which means that it treats only part of the body with cancer. It cannot be used for leukemia or diffuse cancer. Sometimes surgery is the only treatment you need. But more often than not, he will also have other treatments for cancer.
How surgery works against cancer
Depending on the type of cancer the patient is experiencing and the extent of his progress, surgery can be used in:
Remove the entire tumor:
Surgery removes cancer in one area.
Debulk (removal of mass from a tumor or dead tissue):
Surgery removes part of cancer, not all of it. This technique is used when complete removal of the tumor leads to damage to the organ or body. Removing part of the tumor can help other treatments work better.
Relieving cancer symptoms:
Surgery is used to remove tumors that cause pain or pressure.
Risks of surgery
Surgeons are highly trained and will do everything in their power to prevent problems during surgery. However, problems sometimes occur. Common problems are:
After surgery, most people will feel pain in the part where the surgery was performed. The amount of pain the patient feels depends on the extent of the surgery, the part of the body in which the surgery was performed, and how the patient feels pain.
Your doctor or nurse can help you control pain after surgery. Therefore, you should talk to your doctor or nurse before surgery about ways to control pain. After surgery, the patient should tell them if he or she is not able to control the pain.
Infection is another problem that can occur after surgery. To help prevent infection, the patient should follow the nurse’s instructions about taking care of the area undergone surgery. If the patient has an infection, his doctor can prescribe a medication (called an antibiotic) to treat it.
Other risks of surgery include bleeding, damage to nearby tissues, and reactions to anesthesia. It is therefore best to talk to your doctor about the potential risks of the type of surgery you will undergo.
How much does surgery cost?
The cost of surgery depends on many factors, including:
- Type of surgery undergoing the patient
- How many specialists are involved in his surgery
- The type of anesthesia you will need, whether local, regional or general anesthesia
- Place of surgery – in the outpatient clinic, doctor’s office or hospital
- Need to stay in the hospital, and for how long
- The country in which the patient lives where costs vary from place to place
Where is the operation being carried out?
The location of the surgery depends on:
- Type of surgery
- The severity of the surgery
- Where the surgeon does his job
Outpatient surgery can also be performed at the doctor’s office, surgery center, or hospital. Outpatient clinics mean that the patient does not spend the night in the hospital. Or, he may undergo surgery in the hospital and last all night. The number of nights the patient spends depends on the type of surgery he or she performs and how quickly he or she recovers.
What to expect before, during and after surgery
Before surgery, the nurse may call the patient to tell him how to prepare. Your doctor may also tell you about the tests you need to perform before surgery. The common tests he may need, if he has not recently undergone, are:
- Blood tests
- Chest X-rays
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
You may not be able to eat or drink for a certain period before surgery. It is important to follow the instructions about eating and drinking. If he does not, he may need to reschedule the surgery.
You may also be asked to have some supplies available for postoperative wound care. Supplies may include antiseptic ointments and bandages.
What happens during surgery
Once the patient is under anesthesia, the surgeon removes cancer, usually with some healthy tissue around it. Removing these healthy tissues helps improve the chances of removing all cancers. Sometimes, the surgeon may also remove lymph nodes or other tissues near the tumor. These tissues will be examined under a microscope to see if cancer has spread. Knowing if the adjacent tissue contains cancer will help doctors suggest the best treatment plan for the patient after surgery.
What happens after surgery?
Once the patient is ready to go home after surgery, the doctor will tell him how to take care of himself. Some of the most important points the doctor will talk about with the patient are:
- How to control pain
- Activities you shouldn’t do
- How to take care of the wound
- How to detect signs of infection and steps to take in case of infection
- When the patient can return to work and live his life normally
The patient should undergo at least another visit with the surgeon one or two weeks after returning home. For more complex surgeries, you may need to see your surgeon often. The stitches may have been removed, and the surgeon will check to make sure it heals properly.
Needs of your diet before and after surgery
The surgery increases the patient’s need for good nutrition. If he is weak or underweight, he or she may need a diet that contains high protein and calories before surgery to make his body fit to be properly and without risk.
Some types of surgery may change how the body uses food. Surgery can also affect eating if you have oral, gastric, or throat surgery. If the patient has difficulty eating after surgery, he may be given nutrients through a feeding tube or IV (through a needle directly into the vein). You should talk to a dietitian to help with eating problems caused by surgery.
Work after surgery
The patient will need to take time off work to recover from surgery and the duration of this leave varies from one day to several weeks. How long a patient needs to recover depends on several factors, such as:
- The type of anesthesia that the patient underwent during the operation. If anesthesia is local or regional anesthesia, the patient may return to work more quickly than if the anesthesia used is general anesthesia.
- The type of surgery the patient underwent and how extensive it is
- The type of work he does. If he has an active job, he may need to stay away from work more time than if his job is office. If his job allows, he may want to know if he can work at home, or start part-time, to help him get back to his normal job faster.
- It is recommended that you ask your doctor how long he will need to recover from surgery. If the patient expects more time to recover, he or she should talk to his employer to see if he or she can take medical leave. You should also ensure that your health insurance will cover the costs if it is on medical leave and does not work for a period of time.