Laser vision correction (LASIK)
Laser surgery is the most common eye surgery for treating nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. The word “LASIK”is an abbreviation for laser-assisted topical corneal correction. Like other types of refractive surgery, lasik reconstitutes the cornea to enable the concentration of light entering the eye on the retina for clearer vision. Lasik surgery is pain-free and takes only about 15 minutes for both eyes. The results begin immediately after the procedure and the vision continues to improve and stabilize within a few days.
Benefits of LASIK process:
LASIK has many benefits, including:
- High vision corrects as 96% of patients will have the required vision after the operation.
- Lasik is associated with very little pain due to the anesthetic drops used.
- Vision is corrected almost immediately or the day after the LASIK operation.
- No bandages or stitches are required after lasik.
- Modifications can be made after years of LASIK to improve vision if vision changes as the patient ages.
- After lasik surgery, most patients notice a significant decrease in the need to use glasses or rely on contact lenses and many patients no longer need them at all.
How is LASIK performed?
First, the LASIK surgeon will make a very thin, superficial incision in the cornea using a small surgical instrument called microkeratome or a femtoseconds laser. The surgeon then folds the posterior cover to reach the underlying cornea (called the trachea) and removes some corneal tissue using laser scans. Lasers create a cool ultraviolet light beam to remove microscopic amounts of tissue in the cornea to reshape it so that the light that enters the eye focuses more accurately on the retina to improve vision.
For people with nearsightedness, the goal of this operation is to flatten the cornea. As for people who suffer from farsightedness, what is required is to make the cornea more convex. Lasers can also correct astigmatism by smoothing the irregular cornea into a more natural shape.
After reshaping the cornea, the cover is returned to its place, covering the area where the corneal tissue was removed. Laser surgery requires only local anesthetic drops, and no bandages or stitches are required.
Before Lasik surgery.
Your ophthalmologist will perform a thorough eye examination to make sure the patient’s eyes are right enough for the procedure. he will evaluate: the shape and thickness of the cornea. Refractive errors as well as any other problems with the eye. Precautionary treatment may be recommended to reduce the risk of dry eyes after lasik. Typically, a mechanical tool called corneal topography is used to measure the curvature of the anterior surface of the eye and create a “map of the patient’s cornea. It is also possible that the patient will undergo an analysis of the wave interface that sends light waves through the eye to provide a more accurate map of the deviations affecting his vision. Your doctor will also ask about the patient’s general health history and what medications he or she is taking to determine if he or she is a suitable candidate for LASIK.
In addition, you should stop wearing contact lenses for a period of time recommended by your doctor (usually about two weeks) before the eye examination and before lasik. This is because wearing contact lenses can temporarily change the normal shape of the cornea.
What to expect during lasik
Before the start of LASIK surgery, anesthetic eye drops are used on the patient’s eyes to prevent any discomfort during the operation. Your doctor may also give you some medication to help you relax.
The patient’s eyes are then exposed to laser scans, and a tool called a cover scope is used to keep the eyelids wide open. The surgeon uses an ink mark to mark the cornea before starting. The suction ring is applied to the front of the eye to prevent eye movements or loss of communication that may affect the quality of the operation. The surgeon then uses a computer to adjust the laser scans that fit the patient’s condition.
The patient will also be asked to take a look at a target light for a short time while the surgeon watches his eyes through a microscope because the laser sends pulses of light to the cornea. The laser light pulsates and reshapes the cornea painlessly, although the patient may feel some pressure on the eyes. A constant click may also be heard while the laser is on.
After lasik surgery.
When the LASIK process is completed, the patient should rest for some time. It may feel temporary burning or itching immediately after the procedure.
After a short time, the patient can get out of the hospital to the hospital. (You can’t drive after a laser operation until the doctor sees him the next day and confirms that his vision meets the legal standards of driving.
The patient should expect some blurry and bad vision immediately after surgery; however, the patient can see clearly by the next morning where the sight stabilizes and continues to improve within a few days, although in rare cases it may take several weeks or more but for most people, the vision improves immediately so that the patient may be able to go to work the next day, but some doctors recommend at least one day of rest. Also, it is usually recommended to refrain from any hard exercise for at least a week, because this can shock the eye and affect healing.
You usually return to see your ophthalmologist or lasik surgeon the day after surgery. In this initial examination, the visual acuity will be measured to ensure that the patient is able to drive without glasses or contact lenses. In most cases, this requires 20/40 or better visual acuity. As with any other surgery, it is important to follow your doctor’s instructions and take any prescribed medication.
Also, the patient should avoid rubbing his eyes, there is little chance that he will be able to remove the flap of the cornea and cause serious damage to the eye
Laser eye surgery offers many benefits and can significantly improve the patient’s quality of life. Most people achieve 20/20 or better vision after surgery, but lasik results vary. Some people may only achieve vision 20/40 or less. The patient may still need to wear glasses or contact lenses after laser vision correction, although the level of prescription is usually much lower than before.
If there is a mild remaining refractive error after LASIK and if the patient wishes to see more clearly for certain activities such as driving at night, prescription lenses with anti-reflective coatings can often be useful. While LASIK has an excellent safety appearance, LASIK complications can occur. These complications include the glare of the night (from explosions or halos around the lights).
A small percentage of people will need to perform LASIK, or “touch”, a few months after initial LASIK surgery to achieve an acceptable visual acuity. The patient may also still need reading glasses once he or she is 40 years old, due to the near-age-related vision loss called aging vision.
While LASIK surgery has a high success rate, it is important that the patient discusses with his or her doctor or surgeon any concerns he may have before agreeing to the surgery.
The risks of LASIK surgery:
- Dry eyes: Lasik causes a temporary reduction in the production of tears during the first six months or so after surgery and the patient may experience an unusual dryness while the eyes heal. Which can reduce the quality of vision.
- Your ophthalmologist may recommend special drops for dry eyes. If the patient suffers from severe dryness of the eyes, another procedure can also be chosen to place special sockets in the tear ducts to prevent tears from draining away from the surface of the eyes.
- Glare, halos and double vision: You may have difficulty seeing at night after surgery, which usually takes a few days to a few weeks. Increased sensitivity to light, glow or halos around bright lights or dual vision may be observed. Even when a good visual result is measured under standard test conditions, the visibility in low light (such as at dusk or in fog) may be reduced to a greater degree after surgery by temporary surgery.
- Folding or removing the anterior surface of the eye during surgery can cause complications, including infatuation and excess tears. The extraterritorial layer of corneal tissue may grow abnormally below the cover during the healing process.
- Rarely, surgical complications can lead to temporary vision loss, which lasts only a few hours.
Other techniques for laser vision correction:
- LASEK: Although the LASIK process is very effective, it is not a good option for people with thin corneas. LASEK was developed to give a similar result, without exposing thin corneas to damage they may suffer during LASIK. Instead of cutting a flap in the eye, ophthalmologists use an alcohol solution to lift the upper layer of tissue away from the rest of the eye. This tissue is folded back, exposing the core corneal tissue to be reconstituted using an exciting laser. After the appropriate amount of corneal tissue is removed, the outer layer of tissue is returned to its place.
Although LASEK does not provoke dry eyes in the same way as LASIK, it has its own range of side effects. The flap created by lasek tends to heal slower than lasik. As a result, patients will have to wear special contact lenses that act as bandages until the healing is complete. The healing process usually takes up to a week. You may also experience blurry vision that lasts up to 6 months.
- PRK: PRK’s popularity declined somewhat when LASIK was created, however, it has experienced some kind of turnout in recent years. Many doctors now prefer PRK over LASIK for specific types of patients. Instead of creating a flap on the surface of the eye and reshaping the corneal tissue beneath it, PRK involves reshaping the cornea directly from the outside. One of the main drawbacks of PRK is that the patient has a higher level of discomfort and will need more healing time. PRK is another option that is best for patients with thin corneas. It also eliminates the risk of flap-related complications.
As with any surgery, there are some side effects associated with PRK. Patients sometimes experience symptoms of temporary dry eyes as a result of surgery. There is also a chance that a patient recovering from PRK will notice sensitivity to light and increased glare, especially in low light conditions.
- PRP: Retinal photocotherapy. This laser does not improve eye vision but is used to prevent further vision loss. It is commonly used in diabetic eye disease or eye conditions where blood flow may be compromised. The laser causes a small photocotatol in the retina and reduces the total demand for oxygen to the eye.
- SMILE: A new technique based on laser incision. SMILE uses a vimettosecond laser to create a lens-shaped disc of tissue inside the cornea. This tissue disk is called “lental” because it is lentable and is removable. The size and shape of the lens are adjusted according to the refractive error suffered by the patient. The laser eye surgeon removes the lens through a 4-5 mm incision on the cornea. The surgeon reshapes the cornea and flattens it, thereby correcting the vision. The healing period for this technique is relatively slower than lasik.