What is physical therapy?

Physical therapy is a means of treating diseases that involve the motion system for people who have partial or complete motion problems as a result of injury or defects that have disorders from birth using various tools and techniques to improve the patient’s condition to the most functional level possible. Physical therapy includes various tools such as hot and cold applications on the body from the outside, massage, treatment with electric shocks, exercises, pain relief and non-pharmacological treatment for diseases or injuries of the musculoskeletal system and the nervous system. The application of physical therapy aims to eliminate pain and restore patient harmony with daily life and making body functions healthier and use natural therapy to treat arthritis, musculoskeletal and all diseases affecting our system of movement.

What is rehabilitation?

Rehabilitation aims to maximize the physical, mental, social and professional potential of a person with a physiological or congenital anatomical deficiency. The purpose of rehabilitation is to give the individual as much autonomy as possible in his or her daily life. The patient is thoroughly examined by the competent physician before starting treatment to determine the patient’s health and physiological condition and as a result of the examination by the Physiotherapy and rehabilitation specialist, the physical and rehabilitation program is implemented as required. In this program, during this treatment the use of physical therapy, exercise, manual treatment, massage therapy, and other injections within the painful joint or injection where the physician determines the methods to be used during rehabilitation and changes if necessary. During rehabilitation, the causes of the disease are explained to the patient and precautions are taken to avoid the deterioration of the patient’s condition and to ensure full benefit of the treatment.

The most important diseases that may be targeted at physical therapy:

Paralysis and stroke:

Rehabilitation is an important part of the recovery of stroke patients where rehabilitation provides strength, tolerance (the ability to maintain activity) and confidence for the patient. The aim of this treatment is to teach the patient how to walk and take personal care so that the patient is able to perform the movements he has been doing before. The specialist of physical treatment and rehabilitation determines whether rehabilitation is required and any type of rehabilitation is useful to the patient if rehabilitation is required. Most patients will be better after rehabilitation. Rehabilitation begins immediately after the patient’s medical condition stabilizes. While the brain heats up, some improvements can occur automatically. Due to progress in rehabilitation, patients recovery have recently become more promising because the rehabilitation program is designed to meet all individual patient needs, the program that will be applied to each patient will be different. However, some of the principles of treatment are:

  • Direct treatment of basic illness and prevention of complications.
  • Elimination of disability and improvement of patient functions.
  • Patient and family education according to lifestyle changes.

Hydrotherapy: Many exercises and treatments are applied in the water, which is an important part of the physical therapy where the patient is undergoing exercise in the thermal spa and with the effect of hot water the muscles are softening and the heart circulation is accelerated and the mineral minerals that are carried out to the body through open pores are also useful in these treatments. This body-absorbed minerals during treatment are useful for accelerating the regeneration of damaged cells and strengthening the immune system at the same time.

Cervical traction :

Neck pain is not only the problem of people who have reached retirement age, but also the problem of office workers, university students, workers who engage in major physical activity, vehicle drivers and many other age and professional groups as a result of fully mechanical factors and systemic disorders such bone and cartilage disorders or herniated disk.

There are many rehabilitation and Physiotherapy methods used to treat muscle spasm in the neck, reduce pain, and increase the range of movement of the neck area in cases such as neck rheumatism and neck spasms . cervical traction is also part of physical therapy as it is a tool that allows the entire spine to be pulled. In addition to removing the load from the neck vertebrae and gaining the strength of the ligaments and muscles in the neck area, this treatment is performed only under the supervision of a specialist.

Hand rehabilitation:

This method used to treat the hand-to-shoulder area is to activate the nervous system in order to control the muscles by strengthening the weak muscles, where the specialist doctor uses applications such as soft tissue filling. Softness and reinforcement exercises, computer assessment of patient condition, use of static and dynamic plasters, A simulation of the working environment and control of pain where these and other applications increase functional hand capacity, increase finger tip feeling and achieve a proper balanced sense of hand and contribute to eliminating bone and joint damage. The hand rehabilitation treatment program may vary from person to person. In some cases, you can resume treatment from home. In this case, it is necessary to see a doctor at regular intervals. Surgical treatment may be necessary if treatment does not continue as intended.

Orthopedic rehabilitation:

Used to eliminate the hardening of joints and muscles that occurs when a patient has an injury requiring medical, surgical, or treatment intervention. When a patient is undergoing to a bone-structure process, some of the joint hardness occurs due to the use of plasters and internal fixation implants, which hinders the patient’s movement, for example after removing the hand plaster the patient is unable to use the wrist in normally as a muscular swelling and pain occurs as the patient needs treatment with the use of the bone rehabilitation.

The most important cases that can be treated:

  1. Rehabilitation of amputated limbs: All or part of the bones of the arm or leg are removed by surgery where most amputation cases occurs on the leg. orthosis measurements are taken by technicians. The rehabilitation is then planned according to the location and status of the artificial orthosis used.
  2. Rehabilitation of prosthesis: This type of rehabilitation is commonly applied to hips and shoulders, even to elbows and other joints where necessary, the joint that obstructs the patient’s life is removed because of its deformed, inability to perform the required functions, and its pains from the affected area and prosthesis joint is used Instead, the purpose of this artificial limb is to relieve pain in the affected area and to provide a wider range of movement to improve the patient’s quality of life.
  3. Rehabilitation of fracture: After removal of plaster on fractures or after surgical intervention, walking and balance training with the retardations is provided and the patient is undergoing to several sessions to improve joint ability and increase muscle movement.
  4. Rehabilitation of the scoliosis: Scoliosis is a symptom and is not considered as a disease in itself as a distortion that appears in the structure of the spinal. Because it does not happen for different reasons, there are specific treatment methods that vary from person to person.


Neurorehabilitation is performed in cases where the peripheral and central nervous system is damaged. It can be performed in neurological diseases such as trauma, inflammation, structural abnormalities, and stroke caused by circulatory problems and spinal cord paralysis. Rehabilitation is accomplished through the use of individual exercises and various equipment in neurorehabilitation in order to reach the highest level of performance.

The treatment program should be under the name of neurorehabilitation to be performed as a result of adequate neurological examination and patient follow-up, and within this program the patient’s healing process must be closely monitored, also if necessary the necessary changes can be made as required by the patient’s condition. With the neurorehabilitation program, the patient as a whole is treated and his physical, emotional and social condition is improved as the vocational treatment begins and continues to maintain the highest level of motivation to achieve maximum independence from the first day of rehabilitation.

In which diseases should neurorehabilitation be performed?

  1. Circulatory problems: Stroke, brain hemorrhage.
  2. Diseases: Meningitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis and spinal cord abscess.
  3. Structural or neurological diseases: Brain tumors and spinal cord, neurological disorders, muscle atrophy.
  4. Functional diseases: Neuropain such as headache, aging.
  5. Neural diseases: Parkinson, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and Alzheimer.

Pediatric rehabilitation:

Treatment of some congenital diseases of children and neurological diseases caused by structural muscle disorders, which combine child care and rehabilitation practices. Initially a treatment plan is designed to protect the daily activities of the child and to develop current activities where several reasons such as birth weight, abnormal conditions that arise during childbirth, pregnancy duration, genetic disorders and muscle weakness are taken in consideration; The need for treatment is assessed before the rehabilitation treatment of children is initiated. For children under 3 years of age, neurological measurement and examination of the head circumference should be performed within the standard procedure and a detailed assessment may be required in the event of a health anomaly.

What diseases can be treated with pediatric rehabilitation?

  1. Cerebral palsy.
  2. Spina bifida.
  3. Neuromuscular disorders.
  4. Acquired brain injuries.
  5. Spinal cord injuries.
  6. Limb deficiencies.
  7. Gait abnormalities.
  8. Musculoskeletal conditions.

Methods of Physiotherapy:

  1. Exercises:

this is the most common form of treatment in Physiotherapy. The level of movement is increased in the joint. If muscles need to be strengthened, patients should practice certain muscle stimulation exercises and this treatment is usually used in conditions that joint movement is damaged, paralysis and breathing disorders. Movements are carried out with exercise devices under the vision of the specialist. This helps patients who regularly perform the doctor’s proposed treatments on their own.

  1. Heat therapy:

Generally, heat is used in the treated area to reduce the effect of pain and regulate blood circulation where it improves blood flow and the ability of tendons elongation and reducing joint hardness. Heat is applied through short-wave radiation, thermal currents, infrared lamps, ultrasound, hot wet compresses, hot water, melted paraffin wax.

  1. Cold treatment:

Used to treat muscle spasm.

  1. Massage:

Massage is used to regulate blood circulation, relieve pain muscles spasm. Massages are often applied manually, sometimes with mechanical devices or water.

  1. Laser:

In physical therapy, lasers are used with low density so that they do not cause thermal effect. It is often used to accelerate blood circulation, increase collagen tuning and accelerate tissue recovery.

  1. Ultrasound:

Used to heat deep tissues such as muscles, tendons and bones. In addition, ultrasound creates a microscopic effect that allows fluid movement in tissues.

  1. Hydrotherapy:

An in-water treatment program, one of the most comprehensive physical therapy and rehabilitation programs implemented through the use of physical properties of water (i.e. buoyant force) For the treatment of functional diseases or injuries to muscles and joints where patients who cannot move their joints can move them into the water better thanks to the lift power of water .

  1. Electrotherapy:

Contraction can be achieved with low currents applied to muscles. Used to cope with weak muscles and to determine if nerves are healthy.

  1. Air pressure treatment :

applied for the purpose of organizing the blood circulation and treatment of lymphoma.

  1. Tension :

used to extend soft tissues with to separate joint surfaces and bone structures. It is usually used to treat spinal disorders.

Thermal tourism:

Thermal water is the water in the interior of the earth that is the temperature when it is released above 20 degrees C, also this water that contains a number of minerals such as iodine, fluorine and sulfur, thus has many benefits to the body such as the treatment of joint pain, rheumatism, neuroinflammation and the treatment of various skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis also stimulates the skin to excrete collagen leading to restore the beauty of skin and remove the dehydration. The hot water also helps to relax muscles by its high temperature, leading to the expansion of blood vessels and regulates the heart rate, which contributes to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

In Turkey, there are many thermal tourism resorts built on hot water wells, which provide various services depending on the properties of these waters, where people come from different countries aiming for rest and treatment at the same time, which are very popular and directly supported by the government.